Burning operation
Cotton fabrics, because they are made of staple fibers, have a fluffy, fluffy surface, and the purpose of flossing is to remove the surface lint that protrudes from the yarn or the surface of the fabric, making it unattractive. To remove the lint, thread Are passed through a flame-like chamber so that the surface villi are burned and do not cause problems in sewing and other steps.If these villi remain in the dyeing, they absorb more dye and make the surface of the product thicker. Burning also plays a key role.In general, brazing is done for fabrics that need to be completed with a glossy surface.Before brazing, the fabric is brushed and machined, in which the surface fibers of the fabric are shortened to a certain height. Burning Some vegetable impurities are also burned, which helps with the next steps, including bleaching, in which the product must have already passed through the brush and lathe machine, and an abrasive machine may be used instead. Pressing machines are of two types: 1) Pressing machines 2) Flame burning machines with hot surface. In both machines, the fabric is quickly passed in front of a hot surface or flame. The speed must be adjusted so that the surface villi are burned without damaging the product. The product must not completely lose water and be preserved. In both machines, at the beginning of the entry, the fabric is passed through a hot cylinder through which steam passes to ensure that the surface of the fabric has a uniform moisture content and to prevent it from burning. After the burn, the fabric is taken to the spark extinguisher, at which point water or water vapor may be used.
Calibration operation
Because the warp yarns are under tension and subject to a lot of oscillating motion, they are more likely to break. For this reason, linoleum is used to reduce tearing and flossing and increase efficiency. The calcareous material forms a layer of yarn surface which, due to its rigidity, prevents the ability to absorb water and the penetration of dye into the fibers. The solder used also makes the dyeing process difficult, so this material must be removed from the parpa before starting the finishing operation. Ahar consumption has two sources. If it is made of water-soluble polymers, they are removed by a simple wash in hot water, such as polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylic polymers. If it is made of starch, it is difficult to remove it due to the insolubility of starch in water. In this case, one of the four methods of calibration should be used.
۱) Destructive method: The cheapest and oldest method in which no chemicals are used. In this method, the fabric is placed in water for 25 hours at a temperature of 25 to 40 and the bacteria in the water multiply and destroy the starch.
۲) Use of acid: The acid used in this method is hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, which dissolves cellulose in addition to starch. To prevent this from happening, the concentration of acid, heat and duration must be controlled.
۳) Enzyme use: Enzymes have a selective action, that is, they break down starch without damaging the cellulose that makes it up.
۴) Use of oxidizing substances: In this method, substances such as oxygenated water, sodium persulfate, sodium hypochlorite, sodium bromite and sodium chlorite and… are used.
Mercury operation
Mercerizing, named after its discoverer, John Mercer, is actually placing cotton fabrics in strong alkaline solutions such as soda, potash, lithium hydroxide, and ammonia. The discoverer of this practice accidentally found that as the profit passed through the cotton cloths, the concentration of the alkaline solution decreased and the cotton cloth found significant shrinkage. In 1290, a man named Horace Lou stretched the fabric during this operation to prevent it from shrinking, and then realized that the fabric had been given considerable transparency. This act became the basis of mercerization. Mercer operated the product at normal temperature with a gain of 55 to 65 degrees equilibrium and without tension, which resulted in: shrinkage – increase in tensile strength, increase in length to break – increase in water absorption – increase affinity for colors and react in Low temperatures.
Factors affecting mercerization
۱) Concentration of profit used (or other alkaline)
۲) Temperature
۳) The amount of traction
۴) Duration
Maximum inflation occurs at a concentration of 170 g / l and maximum transparency at a concentration of 260-300 g / l during stretching. Also, as the temperature decreases, the transparency should increase. It should be noted that due to the increase in elasticity, the transparency increases, and if the shrinkage of the product reaches zero, the transparency will be extraordinary, but the dyeing properties will decrease compared to the state in which the product is not stretched.

Woven fabrics are made using two or more sets of yarns that are woven at right angles to each other. Extensive types are also produced through knitting. The woven garment is formed by the interweaving of two sets of threads, the warp and weft. These strands are woven together depending on the type of texture or design. Yarn strands are those that flow longitudinally along the length of the fabric, but weft strands are transversely aligned with the fabric.
Classification of woven structures
Woven structures are divided into the following classifications:
– Simple structures
– Complex structures
In the case of simple structures, there is only one set of warp and weft strands. These threads are interwoven with each other alternately. All strands of adjacent warp and weft are parallel to each other and play an important role in determining the properties of the fabric equally. In the case of complex structures, there may be more than one set of strings, one set forming the text or background of the fabric, and the other sets forming the pattern and decoration of the fabric. Unlike simple structures, neighboring strings in this structure do not need to be parallel to each other.
Fabric texture illustration methods
The overlap of the yarn, in which case the yarn is placed above the weft.
Fabric overlap, in which case the fabric is placed above the warp.
When the yarn is higher than the woven fabric, the fabric overlap is achieved. When the weft string is lower, the warp string is woven above the weft string and the overlap of the yarn is achieved.
There are two practical ways to illustrate fabric texture:
– Linear
– Canvas
In the linear method, each strand of fabric is represented by a vertical and horizontal line, respectively. The point of the common season The lines corresponding to the overlap of the warp are marked by a dot, but the point of the common season corresponding to the overlap of the fabric remains indistinct.
In the canvas method, a square plate is used in which each vertical and horizontal space represents the warp and weft strings, respectively. Therefore, each square represents the common thread of the warp and weft.
The square is either filled or shaded to show the overlap of the warp. A blank box indicates that the weft string is beyond the warp, ie the weft is overlapping. Different types of markers may be used to indicate wire overlap. The x marker is commonly used.
The main elements of fabric texture design
The three main elements in fabric texture design are:
– Designing
– Prototype or design plan
– Impact map
The design indicates the intertwining of the warp and weft strands in the designer’s design report. This mode is made up of a number of squares that specify the size of the design iteration.
The vertical and horizontal directions of the squares represent the wefts and threads, respectively. The emptiness of the square indicates that the yarn is under the corresponding fabric, and the X marker in the square indicates that the yarn connections are higher than the fabric.
The prototype shows how the threads are designed through the milmilk eye and determines the number of milmax axes required for a given texture repetition. The choice of the original design pattern depends on the type of fabric texture.
Impact maps provide useful information for the weaver. The degree of elevation of the mill shafts is determined by this map. In an impact map, the vertical and horizontal spaces represent the threads and wefts, respectively.

Most of us have a laid back attitude when it comes to painting a picture about ourselves. We all want to be more beautiful and to be noticed by those around us. This concern may be greater for those who are overweight. It is interesting to know that you can act smartly in all areas such as color, size, sewing and fabric design to look more fit. Lines are the first and most important tools that a costume designer has to offer various models, ideal designs and clothes suitable for different limbs. Clothing models are actually a collection of lines, cuts, designs and patterns, collars, sleeves, pliers, features that show the body in a different way, each of which we will explain in the following.
Vertical lines in clothing
In a ball gown for obese people, vertical lines have a longitudinal feature. The thinner and denser the lines, the narrower and taller the limb, and the thicker and smaller the lines, the wider the limb. The thickness of the lines affects the narrowing or widening of the limbs.
Horizontal lines on clothes
The horizontal line shows the height is shorter and is suitable for very tall people.
Oblique and curved lines in clothing
The more inclined the lines are to the horizontal lines, the more they take on the characteristics of the horizontal line and the wider the limb, and the more inclined to the vertical lines, the more they take on the characteristics of the vertical lines and the taller the limb.
Broken lines on clothes
They show the limbs thinner and thinner. Use vertically broken lines to make the limbs appear taller. The more curved the lines, the fatter the limbs show.
Patterned and patterned fabric
The patterned fabric makes the limbs appear more uniform. The larger and more crowded the fabric, the fatter the limb. Also, fabrics that have a repetitive role show the limbs better.
The fabric creates visual error patterns
If the lines are focused on one part of the limb, they attract attention and make that part of the body appear larger.
Fabric with checkered patterns
Checkered patterns on the fabric make people look bigger. For this role, if black and white is used, it will have the greatest effect on making you look fat. Fabrics with rhombus patterns are less effective than plaids. However, you should be careful when buying, that a wider rhombus is twice as fat as a narrow rhombus.
Fabric with spotted patterns
In these fabrics, the dots are placed next to each other in a certain order. These designs also have a fattening effect. Of course, large spots have a greater fattening effect than small spots.

Textile is spinning or weaving, the art of weaving in which two separate sets of yarns and strands, called yarns and wefts, are woven together to produce fabric. The warp threads in the piece of fabric go longitudinally, and the weft threads go from side to side in width. In general, it can be said that fabric is a flexible layer that is composed of a network of yarns or natural or synthetic fibers; The type of yarn or fibers and the structure and manner of their placement together create the structure of the fabric and its physical properties. The fabric is produced by blur-weaving, circular weaving, non-woven and knitting methods.
Background of fabric production stages in Iran
Scientists’ research over the last hundred years shows that Iranians have been at the forefront of textile weaving. Even the inhabitants of ancient Iran in the second period of the Stone Age (or the so-called Middle Stone Age) were familiar with the technique of weaving. The best evidence to prove this fact; It is pottery, jewels and beads that have been placed in the depths of the soil of this border and canvas for more than eight thousand years BC. In a cave called the Belt Cave near the Caspian Sea, Professor Carlton Ken obtained fabrics that prove that from the very beginning of cave-dwelling, Iranian tribes wove sheepskin and goats in cloth.
Fabric production and supply stages
Step 1: Wool and sheep
The first stage is the production of raw materials. For men’s clothing, the best material is wool, which is made from sheep. The best wool comes from Australia and New Zealand. Unlike men, women’s clothes are usually made seasonally and are made of materials that are less durable than men’s clothes.
Step 2: Shaving the wool
Sheep whose wool is shaved are called floack. For better quality, it is better for the sheep to be shaved in the best and most comfortable condition. The Australian hills provide the best climate and the best grass for sheep, resulting in good wool being exported. Usually 2.7 to 8.5 kg of wool is shaved from each sheep per year.
Step 3: Ranking
Immediately after the wool is shaved,. Is categorized and after ranking, it is placed in different categories. This ranking depends a lot on the quality of the wool and the climate in which the sheep lived.
Step 4: Wash and comb the wool
Shaved wool contains sweat, impurities, dirt and other items that are removed after special washing. After combing the wool, any impurities in it are removed and we get pure wool.
Step 5: Weaving wool
Before turning the wool into knitting yarn, it is combed again so that its strands are parallel.
Step 6: Rotate the wool
Wool ready to weave enters a cycle and is woven. In this process, the wool is woven and woven and its radius is reduced to the desired thickness. Due to the high pressure that is applied to it, the wool is able to bend and that is why we see seams in clothes to maintain the shape of the yarn.
Step 7: Dye the yarn
We have three types of yarn dyeing:
Method 1: In this method, longer strands are dyed and shorter strands are removed. This process takes place after weaving, but before the weaving stage, and is the most suitable way to dye yarns in large quantities. It usually combines several colors in this method and the result is better final color quality. Sometimes, instead of dyeing the whole yarn, part of it is dyed, which is widely used in flannel woolen garments.
The second method: is done after the yarn is woven and is mostly used to produce striped, checkered and checkered fabrics.
Partial dyeing: This type of dyeing is done after the production of yarn and before it becomes a fabric. Which is more useful for dyeing fabrics of monochrome clothes.
Step 8: Bend
This is the most sensitive step because a small error can not get the adjusted yarn to the final fabric. In this work, the yarn is taken from both sides exactly and it is twisted and bent enough to find the final and desired shape. Modern laser checking machines ensure that the yarn is woven with great precision.
Step 9: Knitting
After bending and weaving, this yarn enters the machine to be woven. According to the design that should be placed on the fabric, this yarn goes up and down, and in the meantime, a special part has the task of applying the designs on the fabric. Today, all this work is done electronically and at a higher speed.
Step 10: the last stage
The final steps are different for different fabrics. For winter fabrics, they should be washed in warm water and reduced to one third of their size, while we will encounter a fuller and heavier fabric. In contrast, summer fabrics are subjected to extreme heat to remove any lint from them. In the final stage, these fabrics are tested by experienced experts and this is done on large tables where the eye can easily see any shapes or tears.

Fabrics used as raincoats, umbrellas, and و have been created to be water-resistant using the chemicals provided to them appropriately. Finishing refers to waterproofing the fabric, which is a durable finish. Completing a water repellent is different from completing a waterproofing. Completing the water repellent means that if water is sprayed briefly on the fabric, it can not wet the fabric.
Complete waterproofing
If the fabric in question, TC fabric and waterproofing finish is just a normal waterproofing finish that can not pass the AATCC-35 rainwater test, then the import tariff for sweaters is 34%. However, if similar fabrics containing waterproofing additives can pass the AATCC-35 test and be recognized as rain-resistant, then their tariff is 7.6%.
In order for the fabric to pass the AATCC-35 rainwater test, the fabric must pass the Cup Test, which withstands 600 mm of water resistance without leakage.
Based on the above, you will see that the difference between 7.6% and 34% is large. If you use the right quality waterproofing finish, you can get benefits through low tariff rates. However, in addition to the waterproof finish, you should also consider the style of the jacket. Styles that may cause the jacket to not be accepted as a raincoat can be summarized as follows:
– If quilt fabric stitches are made on the outside of the fabric, water can easily penetrate the layers through multiple needle holes.
– If the pockets are doorless, water simply enters through several interconnected pieces. Water can also enter the pockets through the sewing line.
Complete water repellent
Completing a water repellent is different from completing a waterproofing. Completing the water repellent means that if water is sprayed briefly on the fabric, it can not wet the fabric. However, if we still continue to wet the fabric, water can seep into it.
You can perform a test to find out if the fabric has a water repellent finish (W.R) or a waterproof finish (W.P) or no finish has been made on it (simple finish) as follows:
– Place the cloth on a flat surface and sprinkle a few drops of water on it.
– If water gradually seeps into the fabric, it tells you that this side of the fabric has a W.R. Now you use your finger to rub on the water. If in this situation water does not enter the other side of the fabric, it means that this fabric has WP on the other side, but if water penetrates to the other side in this way, it can be said that there is WR only on this side. has it.
– If water is absorbed and easily reaches the other side (completely wet), it means that the fabric has a simple finish and does not have W.R and W.P.
– If water does not penetrate into the fabric, but sticks to it, and when rubbed on it, but does not enter, it tells us that this side of the fabric has a W.P. completion. It is very likely that there is a W.R on the other side of the fabric. Because when the fabric has W.P on the other side, it has W.R on the other side. To make sure you are thinking correctly, it is enough to turn the cloth over and sprinkle water on it to see if water penetrates or does not penetrate.
– If you can breathe through the fabric, it means the fabric does not have W.P. If you can not breathe, it can be said that the fabric is W.P.

Dyeing literally means dyeing fabric, yarn and.. Dyeing process refers to the process in which yarn, fabric, fibers, clothing, and apparel are placed in containers containing dyes, chemicals, or other natural substances to transfer the desired dye to them. In the dyeing process, the molecules and the fabric are combined with the dye molecules and collide, and the molecules and the fabric become like the components and molecules of the dye.
In this process, the dye is first brought to a certain temperature, and after reaching the desired temperature, dyeing begins by placing the fibers and yarn inside it for a certain period of time. Observing the concentration of dyes as well as its temperature and the duration of the fibers in the tank is very important and has a direct effect on the quality of work.
What is a dye?
In the dyeing process, all natural or chemical substances that change the color of fibers, yarns or fabrics are called dyes. The dye should be chosen so that the yarn, fibers, and dyed fabric do not change color when washed or exposed to sunlight.
What are the differences between printing and dyeing process?
In the printing process, like dyeing, the fabric is dyed, but these two methods of dyeing the fabric are fundamentally different, and the details and how they are done are different. Industrial and traditional dyeing are two methods of dyeing fabrics, fibers and yarns that have been used for many years. In order for the dyeing process to take place, four factors must be involved and present. Without even one of these four factors, this process remains incomplete and does not end.
These four factors are: dyes, fibers, fabrics or yarns for dyeing, auxiliary chemicals and dyeing machines that do this. The materials used for dyeing can be of chemical or natural origin, ie they may be derived from natural plant extracts or made from industrial materials.
How many styles and types of dyeing process is made?
Dyeing can be done in three different styles. Clutter, knot, and catazome printing are three well-known and important styles in this process, each of which is done in different ways. Dyeing should be done in any style. There should be a set of tools, for example, the presence of a ladle, thermometer, stirrer and special glassware is essential. Auxiliary materials such as alum salt, ammonia and water are also required and without them the dyeing process remains incomplete.

Men’s shirts are generally simple and often without special details and designs. Men’s shirts can be in any color and their color is infinitely varied and do not follow a specific rule.
Check the gender of men’s shirts
Silk shirts
Silk shirts are the most luxurious and unique men’s shirts. Due to the difficult production process and the texture of the silk fabric, the price of these shirts is high, but the quality, transparency and attractiveness of these beautiful shirts are commensurate. Men’s silk shirts need special care for long-term maintenance.
Cotton shirts
Men’s cotton yarn shirts, due to their natural texture, conduct heat and allow air to pass through. This keeps the body cool. Cotton fibers also collect and absorb moisture from the skin well and prevent sweating. Cotton yarn shirts are one of the most durable shirts and take on the shape of a body. These shirts are easy to wash and do not leave stains on them. The combination of these features has made the cotton yarn shirt the most popular men’s shirt.
Synthetic fiber shirt
Synthetic fibers have been developed to replace cotton shirts but have never been able to replace cotton shirts. Synthetic fiber shirts are not of good quality and are made by human hands, but compared to natural cotton cotton shirts, they have a lower price and are available to the public. Synthetic shirts are less wrinkled and less prone to stains and dirt than natural fiber shirts. We recommend that you never buy shirts that are woven with more than 50% synthetic fibers. These shirts intensify the sweating and the bad smell caused by it and keep the heat in the hot days of the year.
Check the size of men’s shirts
Men usually wear shirts that are not the right size. The reason for this is that many of these shirts are industrially sewn and made. So the size of the person is not necessarily important in this matter and everyone should look for a shirt that suits their size. This will make the shirt less suitable for you in all directions and sizes. It must have happened to you that the collar is not your size, but the sleeves are perfectly fit and sized; Or the waist size is good but the shirt height is short or long. A shirt that is exactly your size is comfortable and being comfortable has a different meaning for everyone. Men with large bodies are comfortable with big and loose shirts, but people who are thin and skinny will not look attractive if they wear this dress. Lean people should choose fit and tight shirts. Whatever style you decide upon, that look can be further enhanced by the type of shutter hinges used:
• The shoulders of the shirt should be perfectly on the shoulders and adjust exactly to the shoulders. Even with less than one centimeter, it should not stretch towards the neck or down.
• The full size shirt should have a maximum of 2 cm of free space in the chest and upper body to prevent it from sticking to the body.
• The collar of the shirt after closing should be up to an inch of open space to prevent the feeling of suffocation and heaviness.
• The cuffs and buttons should be sewn in such a way that the cufflinks can be easily opened and closed.
• The sleeves should be of standard size, ie they should be neither short nor wide and long.
Check the color of men’s shirts
When choosing the color of men’s upper body, important factors such as face, hair color and eye color should be considered. But what is common is that men choose their clothes according to their personal taste and previous clothes and clothes available in the market.
Men’s white shirt
Men’s white shirt is in perfect harmony with many sets and is one of the basic components in building a successful men’s combination. So you can wear a white shirt in any occasion except mourning.
Men’s blue shirt
Blue shirt is one of the most popular and common colors of shirts in Iran. The reason for the popularity of this color of shirts is the popularity of the color blue among men and more importantly, the harmony of this color with the skin of men. Every day in the market and fashion trends of menswear, we see the presence of a new pattern for the color blue by shirt embroidery factories. Blue is the best and most suitable color to replace white

To get a true picture of smart fabrics, imagine that tomorrow morning when you wake up, as soon as you put on your clothes, your health control medical clinic will call you.
“Hello, please be more relaxed today and drink more water. The invitations sent by your clothes have predicted the possibility of your blood pressure rising…”
This is the future scenario of clothes made with smart fabrics. A new generation of fabrics that, in addition to beauty and comfort, also have amazing uses. Soon, clothes made from these smart fabrics will track a person’s health and help with medical care. According to researchers, the day will come when you will not choose clothes just because of their shape, but more because of what they do for you. Fabrics that store energy and allow temperature control in very cold or very hot climates. Blankets that create the right temperature and track our sleep cycle. Nike has patented sneakers that, with the help of an internal activity tracker, provide information to a mobile app and monitor your health and position.
What is smart fabric?
Electronic fabrics, or smart fabrics, are fabrics that contain digital components, from batteries and tiny lights to very small computers. These fabrics offer new features that in turn are a revolution in the garment industry. One of these special features is the ability to communicate and transfer data.
Smart fabrics are generally divided into two categories:
۱- Fabrics that are produced with the aim of beauty and fantasy. Some of these fabrics change color. Some of these fabrics detect energies such as vibrations, sound and heat and react to these types of inputs.
۲- Fabrics that have a functional aspect. They are produced for special purposes such as medical, sports and safety uses.
Smart fabric applications
Smart fabrics range from smart medical bandages to virtual reality gloves, sensors and other wearable smart devices in medicine, sports, transportation, automotive and more. Preparation of radioactive sensor clothes, preparation of biosensors such as blood sugar and hemoglobin sensors and preparation of smart clothes for measuring heart rate, preparation of flexible solar cells, preparation of fabrics with local conductivity (patterned), and preparation of flexible antennas are other fields. The use of this technology. Researchers are now working on smart yarns that can change color and change color according to the mood of the people. Researchers believe that smart fabrics will one day take control of kinetic energy and provide the power they need from walking and user movement, and will not even need to use batteries or power.
Specific applications of smart fabrics
• Examine vital signs such as heart rate, respiration rate, temperature, activity and general condition of the body
• Get general information about your body condition during exercise
• Hazardous material monitoring
• Tracking the position and status of soldiers in operations
• Bulletproof vests that communicate the location of the impact and the amount of damage in the event of a bullet
• Monitor the fatigue of the pilot or truck driver
• Creative fashions (wearable technologies) and…
Three generations of smart fabrics
First generation: In the first generation of smart fabrics, sensors were attached directly to the garment and the information obtained from these sensors was received and analyzed. This technology was mostly used in sportswear of brands.
Second generation: In the second generation of smart fabrics, sensors were embedded in the fabric of clothing to achieve better use and comfort.
Third generation: are wearables that are composed entirely of sensors and are made of sensors in the fabric of the fabric. Many companies these days use this technology for different purposes.
By analyzing the information provided by these sensors, the relevant software can check the health of the athlete or patient’s body in general and in detail and keep the relevant files up to date. Today, the textile industry is seriously pursuing the production of smart fabrics, which include a combination of two processes: the production of electronic equipment and textiles.

We all know that clothes stains are inevitable. The stain of orange juice in our child’s school bag, the stain of the juice we eat with breakfast, the stain that appears on our clothes while cooking, and so on. The only thing we can do is learn how to get rid of these stains. For this reason, we have prepared a simple step-by-step guide on how to remove juice stains from clothes.
It is best to be quick when juice spills on clothes and try to remove excess liquid from the cloth as much as possible before it is fully dispersed. Of course, sometimes you can not act fast. However, the sooner you react to the juice stains, the sooner you get rid of them! So try to wash the stain off as soon as possible, even when you only have one paper towel available to do so.
How to remove juice stains from cloth?
Remember to always check the label on the clothes before cleaning the juice stains on the clothes, and always test a small piece of cloth before washing the whole clothes. If the label on your clothes says “Laundry only!”, Take it seriously, leave the clothes to a professional so you do not regret it.
Steps to clean juice stains
first step
Remove any excess liquid from the fabric, but be careful not to spread the stains more than they are.
Step two
Before washing, pour a little cleansing liquid directly on the stain. Some detergents usually have a small ball that can be removed by dragging it onto a dirty area covered in liquid. Remember not to dilute the detergent with water under any circumstances. With the ball, gently dab on the spot. This will cause the material that has eaten the fabric to be largely cleaned and the stain to disappear.
Third step
At this stage, wash the clothes with detergent, and water with a temperature of 40 degrees Celsius.
The last step is to remove the juice stain
After the washing process is over, check the clothes and see if the stain is completely removed. Then spread it out to dry. If possible, place the clothes outdoors in the sun to dry. Because if the stain is not completely removed and you put the clothes in the dryer, the stain will spread more. If necessary, repeat the stain removal process before the clothes dry. If you know how to use detergent, the stains will disappear miraculously!

Color fastness is a term used in the dyeing of textiles; We can define color stability as follows: having a color that does not fade or fade with washing. Textile fabrics have many properties, of which color stability is one of the most important. Color fastness is one of the characteristics that allows colored textiles to retain their various properties even in the face of destructive conditions such as light exposure and laundry.
One of the main reasons for consumers’ complaints about dyed textiles is their unacceptable color stability. Dyed fabrics behave differently when exposed to different conditions such as rubbing, washing, sweating, and exposure to light (while using textiles or clothing). The color of the fabrics may be quite consistent in some situations, but they may show very poor color stability in other conditions. Therefore, the fabric should be tested based on its final application.
Different types of fabric color fastness
There are several tests to check the color fastness of the fabric. The most important tests to check the color fastness of the fabric are:
– Color fastness against rubbing
– Color fastness against washing
– Color fastness against light
– Color fastness against perspiration
– Color fastness to sublimation
– Color fastness against water
– Color fastness against sea water
– Color fastness against hot pressure
– Color fastness against chlorinated water

Color fastness against rubbing
This test evaluates the amount of dye that is transferred from the dyed sample to the white cloth under certain rubbing conditions. This is done using scaling equipment that can be operated manually or by motor. There are two main tests to determine the rubbing effect; One of these methods is BS EN ISO-105-X12, while in the second method, the AATCC-8 method uses an odometer. In the BS EN ISO-105-X12 test method, the dimensions of the dyed fabric should not be less than 50 by 140 mm. However, in the AATCC-8 test method, the dimensions of the sample must be at least 50 by 130 mm.
The AATCC has also developed another method, the AATCC-116 Vertical Rotary Detector, which is used for smaller specimens and printed fabrics. In this experiment, the dyed cloth sample is locked on the base of the dirt meter, then a white cloth measuring 5 by 5 cm is mounted on a finger and rubbed on the dyed cloth. A finger is rubbed on the dyed cloth at a speed of 10 revolutions per second. The white cloth is then evaluated on the removed finger. In this experiment, grading is done on a scale of 1 to 5. The method of testing the color fastness of a wet rub is quite similar to the dry method, which means that the test has nothing to do with whether the cloth is wet from the beginning. The strength of the fabric in terms of fluid absorption must be 65%, otherwise significant changes may be reported. This test method can be used to determine the degree of rubbing for a variety of dyed fabrics and fabrics that are processed after dyeing.

Color fastness against washing
This method is used to evaluate the resistance of dyed fabrics to washing with soap and water, or water and detergents. There are many main and secondary methods for evaluating the color fastness of dyed fabric against washing, because the washing conditions vary from country to country and from consumer to consumer. Therefore, various tests have been developed in this field. The following are two main methods that have been approved by many international organizations. The first test relates to the textile test against color stability BS EN ISO 105-C06: 2010 (Section C06 color fastness against household and commercial washing). The second test is the color fastness test against home and commercial AATCC Test Method 2003-2006. There are various methods based on ISO standard methods for evaluating color stability during washing, which have been developed in the form of methods C01 to C06. Methods C01 to C06 differ in soap percentage, temperature, wash time and wash level. In the BS EN ISO 105-C06: 2010 test method, dyed fabrics must have dimensions of at least 10 by 4 cm and be sewn together with standard multi-fiber strips. There are two types of multi-fiber tapes, each containing six different types of fibers; The DW type is wool, while the TV type is non-wool. Fibers with unstable dyes can be evaluated by compressing the samples by laying and then sewing their spacing with multi-fiber strips. For testing, colored yarns can be turned into knitting fabric, or the above method, which is for loose fibers, can be repeated for yarns. The sample is then washed in a washing machine (at a speed of 40 rpm) based on one of the conditions in the table above. The washing solution used in this experiment is prepared by dissolving 4 grams of detergent per liter of water. The reference detergents used in this experiment may be AATCC 1993, WOB (without optical clarifier) ​​or ECE (European Institute for Color Stability) in combination with phosphates.
Abrasion is performed on dyed fabrics with a small amount of solution and using a large number of steel balls. Grayscale grading for color change and color stability can be provided using the corresponding gray scales. The samples can also be ranked on a scale of 1 to 5. Method C06 can be used for all natural and artificial colors. The washing machine used in this method is similar to the ISO C06 standard washing machine, but the sample size and washing conditions will be different in this test.

Color fastness against light
This test is performed to evaluate the fading of the fabric when the sample is kept under a specific light source. During this test, the test specimens are exposed to light for a specified period of time in terms of light source, temperature and humidity at the customer’s request, then compared with standard specimens. The blue scale is used to determine the amount of color change. This test is very important for paint manufacturers, dyeing units and retailers. Some products such as carpets, curtains and home appliances should have very good color fastness against light due to functional requirements.
Textile color fastness test, BS EN ISO 105- B02: 2014 ;: Color fastness against artificial light: Color test on xenon arc and AATCC Test Method 16. Usually the light spectrum of a xenon arc-based light source is similar to that of daylight. That is why it is often used. In addition, an effective filter between the lamp and the sample should be used to control the light intensity. These variables can easily lead to significant changes in the gradation of color stability against light. Therefore, when announcing the test result, the conditions to which the sample is exposed must be fully explained. Tested samples and standard reference of blue wool are stored in a special light source and in standard conditions. According to the standard, some of the samples are partially covered and the rest of the samples are exposed to a special light source. Then the samples that were exposed to light, the ones that were not exposed to light, and the standard samples that all have the same color are compared and the sample is graded based on the mental results. In this ranking, scale 1 (lowest) and scale 8 (highest) have points. American and European scales use two different sets of standard references. The rating on the European scale is from 1 to 8, while the rating on the American scale is from L2 to L9. It should be noted that these scales can not be converted to each other, and when grading textiles, the scale on which the textile is graded should be mentioned.

Color fastness against perspiration
This test is performed to assess the discoloration of the fabric during sweating. In this experiment, the test specimens are immersed in a solution consisting mainly of histidine. The sample is then placed in a perspirometer and treated with histidine solution; A standard sample is also dried separately. The gray scale can be used to determine discoloration and staining. Two test methods that have received a lot of attention in this field are AATCC Test Method 15 and BS EN ISO 105-E04. In both experiments, perspiration was dissolved based on the hash. In alkaline solution, soluble hash is maintained at level 8 using NaOH; Other compounds in this solution include 0.5 g of histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, 5 g of sodium chloride and 2.5 g of sodium hydrogen phosphate per liter. Acid solution pH should be maintained at level 5.5. Other ingredients in this solution are like alkaline solution.
By immersing the sample in the solution for half an hour at room temperature, the fabric sample is completely soaked in the acidic solution (or the solution at the base of the desired foundation) and the sample has a solution ratio of 50: 1. To remove excess solution, the sample is cleaned with two glass rods and then placed at the recommended pressure of 12.5 kPa between two pressure gauge plates. Next, the sample is dried in an oven at 37 ° C for 4 hours. Finally, the sample is graded using the gray scale.

Color fastness to sublimation
The color fastness of a painted product is not only affected by washing, water or rubbing; It is also affected by heat in various conditions such as pressure, dry heat or heat and humidity. Some pigments are sensitive to heat and therefore may fade or fade due to heat. This test is performed to evaluate the paint’s resistance to the effects of dry heat, regardless of whether it is pressed or ironed. In general, there are two methods for evaluating the color fastness against dry heat: (1) color fastness test against dry heat, ISO 105 – P01 (excluding presses) and (2) AATCC Test Method 117-2004 – color fastness at Heat equal: dry (except press). These methods can be used for different types of fabrics and are based on the stability of the fibers at different temperatures; In addition, the color fastness of the paint may be affected by the chemicals used during dyeing, printing, chemical processing and physical factors involved in discoloration and staining. In these tests, the unpainted fabric attached to the test specimens is exposed to heat and graded on a gray scale.
A test sample of the test sample is processed for 30 seconds at a specified temperature and pressure. The three temperature options for the experiment are 2.150, 2.180, and 2.210 ° C; Also, the temperature at which the sample is exposed must be stated, because changing the temperature can significantly change the results. During the test, a pressure of 1.4 kPa is applied to the sample. Finally, the treated samples are evaluated and ranked using the gray scale in terms of color change and staining on the adjacent fabric.